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2019年成人高考复习指导:英语阅读理解答题技巧

时间:2019年06月10日 来源:www.hdzkzsb.com

做什么都讲究一个方法问题,学习如此,成考亦是如此,好的学习方法能让你事半功倍。在专升本考试中,《英语》是一门重要的公共基础课程,也是考试成绩上升空间较大的一门课程。学好英语同学好其他学科一样,都要付出辛勤的汗水和艰辛的努力。下面,我们为大家整理了英语阅读理解答题技巧,希望对成考考生的复习有所帮助!

关于作者的态度类问题(Attitude)

阅读理解的最后一题常常提问在作者对文章中某一问题的态度(Attitude)、全文的基调(Tone)、文章的出处(Source)及对文章前后接续内容的判断等。

关于态度或基调(Attitude/Tone)类题的回答应从篇章的体裁着手,一般来说,在说明文中作者的态度是客观的(objective)或中立的(neutral);而在议论文中,作者的观点才会显得多种多样,常风的选项有:

(1)positive(积极的)

(2)negative(消极的)

(3)neutral(中立的)

(4)approval(赞成的)

(5)disapproval(不赞成的)

(6)indifferent(漠不关心的)

(7)sarcastic(讽刺的)

(8)critical(批评的)

(9)optimistic(乐观的)

(10)pessimistic(悲观的)

问题的几种提问方式:

(1)What's the writer's attitude to …?

(2)What's the tone of the passage?

(3)The author's view is _______

(4)The writer's attitude of,this passage is apparently _________

(5)The author suggests that _________

(6)According to author __________

有文章中,作者观点明确,文章基调清楚,而有的文章中,作者仅仅暗示对某一问题的态度和观点,需要阅读时仔细琢磨。解答这类问题时,首先应请注意篇章中起连接手段作用的那些词语;其次应注意有些表明作者观点词汇,如形容词、动词等。

对文章的出处及文章前后接续内容判断等可从全篇着手,从个别句子或词汇找线索进行判断。

Example :

I am not so nave ,however ,as to believe that is responsible for this unfortunate situation of the American woman. I am not a feminist ,but I am an individualist. I do not believe there is any important difference between men and women. certainly not as much as there may be between one woman and another or one man and an-other. There are plenty of women and men,for that matter who would be completely fulfilled in being allowed to be as lazy as possible. If someone will ensconce them in a pleasant home and pay their bills,they ask no more of life. It is quite all right for these men and women to live thus so long as fools can be found who will pay so much for nothing much in return. Gigolos ,male and female,are to be found in every class and in the best of homes. But when a man does not want to be a gigolo,he has the freedom to go out and work and create as well as he can. But a woman has not. Even if her individual husband lets her,tradition in society is against her. In this passage the author looks on the situation of women with an attitude of .

A)amusement

B)indifference

C)disapproval

D)condemnation

此篇文章中,作者对待这一问题的态度十分明确、强硬(如用语I am not 等等),因此只参在选项C)和D)中选择。而从文章中的“gigolos”,"fools"等词可看出作者不仅不赞成而且态度更甚。所以,选项C)程度还不够,这一题的正确答案是D)

关于词汇问题(Vocabu1ary)

词汇(Vocabulary)是三级阅读理解测试中非常重要的一项。词汇类其实也是就细节进行提问,所不同的是这是唯一关于词或词组的练习项 目,词汇题往往要求对文章中的某个单词、短语甚至句子等找出近义词或最合适的解释。解答这类题需要学生拥有较大的词汇量。可是,单词记忆似乎已成为学生普 遍反映最头痛的难题。阅读理解中词汇类问题的常见提问方式有下列几种:

(1)According to the author ,the word “…”means_______.

(2)Which of the following is nearest in meaning to “…”?

(3)The term “……”in paragraph… can be best replaced by …。

(4)What's the meaning of “…”in line …of paragraph…。

(5)As used in the line …,the word “…”refers to _______.

一般来说,在文章的阅读中解决释义的最邓办法是猜测词义。猜测词义也需要一定的技巧,可以通过:1)上下文间意义的联系;2)同义关系,反义关系;3)词的定义;4)对词的解释和举例;5)构词法知识猜测词义。

1、利用上下文词语意义的互相联系猜测词义

Example :

The fishermen make their canoes from tree trunks .They go from island to island in these light marrow boats and collect turtles' eggs

我们从上下文中可以得出以下信息:“canoes”是一种渔夫用树木做的、来回于岛屿之间的、轻狭长的、类似于小船之类的东西。尽管我们可能还不能肯定它的确切解释,但这一生词已经不会影响我们的阅读和理解了。

Example :

Jogging has become very popular in some countries ,It is believed to be a good exercise for old people.

“Jogging”的意思通过“a good exercise for old people ”可以推断出是一种适合老年人的剧烈的运动方式。

2、利用文章中词与词的同义和反义关系猜测词义

Example :

If you happened to be sitting in the woods outside the city ,you might have witnessed a strange sight. You would have seen a very proud looking man riding along horseback ,saying something.

在文章中可以很容易地判断出“witnesss”的同义关系词是“seen”,因此“witness”就是看见的意思。

Example :

In the northern regions the winters are generally cold and humid ,and the summers hot and dry.

显然,冬天和夏天的气候是截然相反的,它们的修饰词的意思也应该截然相反。“cold”与“hot”对应,“humid”与“dry”对应。因此,“humid”是“潮湿”的意思。

3、利用文章中对词的定义猜测词义

Example:

Such experiences are not unusual for the amateur conchologists,people who collect shells.

Conchologists的意思可以根据该词后面的同位解释“people who collect shells”理解为收集贝壳的人或贝壳收藏家。

Example :

Jack is now a florist,who keeps a shop for selling flowers in our district.

“florist” 的意思就是其后定语从句“who keeps a shop for selling flowers 所描述的”拥有一家专门卖花的商店的人“,即“花店主”。

4、利用文章中对词的举例及解释猜测词义

Example :

Today young couples who are just starting their households of ten spend lots of their money on appliances,for instance,washing machines ,refrigerators and color TVs.

通过所举的例子(washing machines ,refrigerators and color TVs)

可以看出,“appliances” 应是这些名词的总称,即“家用电器”。

Example :

Finally the enemy surrendered .They threw down their weapons and walked out of the home with their hands over their heads.

通过后一句对“surrendered”的解释:扔掉武器(throw down their weapons ),举起双手(with their hands over heads )可知其意是“投降”。

5、利用构词法知识(前缀和后缀)猜测词义

Example :

They overestimate the interviewee's ability and asked him many difficult questions.

“estimate”是“估计”的意思,“over-”是前缀,意为“过分,过度,超 过”等,因此“overestimate”就是“高估”的意思。

Example :

We were told that ours was the most spacious room in the hotel .That was why we had to pay so much for it .

“spacious”是由“space”(名词,空间)+“ious”(形容词后缀变化而来的,因此,可猜测其词义为“宽敞”。)

各种各样的前、后缀可以构成名词、形容词、动词、副词等,这些词缀需要平时不断地积累和记忆。掌握构词法知识是扩大词汇量和猜测生词词义的最佳办法。

 

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